Annual Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life
Lost, and Productivity Losses — United States, 1997–2001
Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, causing many diseases and reducing quality of life and life expectancy (1). This report assesses the health consequences and productivity losses attributable to smoking in the United States during 1997–2001. CDC calculated national estimates of annual smoking-attributable mortality (SAM), years of potential life lost (YPLL) for adults and infants, and productivity losses for adults. The findings indicated that, during 1997–2001, cigarette smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke resulted in approximately 438,000 premature deaths in the United States, 5.5 million YPLL, and $92 billion in productivity losses annually. Implementation of comprehensive tobacco-control programs as recommended by CDC can reduce smoking prevalence and related mortality and health-care costs (1).
The Adult and Maternal and Child Health Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity and Economic Cost (SAMMEC) software (2) was revised on the basis of findings from the 2004 Surgeon General’s report on diseases caused by smoking (1). The list of smoking-attributable diseases now includes stomach cancer and acute myeloid leukemia and excludes hypertension. Sex- and age-specific smoking-attributable deaths were calculated by multiplying the total number of deaths for 19 adult and four infant disease categories by estimates of the smoking-attributable fraction (SAF) of preventable deaths. The attributable fractions provide estimates of the public health burden of each risk factor and the relative importance of risk factors for multifactorial diseases. Because of the effect of interactions between various risk factors, attributable fractions for a given disease can add up to more than 100%. For adults, SAFs were derived by using sex-specific relative risk (RR) estimates (2) for current and former smokers for each cause of death from the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) for the period 1982–1988 (2). For ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease deaths, RR estimates were also stratified by age (35–64 years and >65 years). SAFs also used sex- and age-specific (35–64 years and >65 years) current and former cigarette smoking–prevalence estimates from the National Health Interview Survey.* For infants, SAFs were calculated by using pediatric RR estimates (2) and maternal smoking prevalence estimates from birth certificates (2). Smoking-attributable YPLL and productivity losses were estimated by multiplying sex- and age-specific SAM by remaining life expectancy (3) and lifetime earnings data (4). In addition, smoking-attributable fire-related deaths (5) and lung cancer and heart disease deaths attributable to exposure to secondhand smoke (6,7) were included in the SAM estimates.
During 1997–2001, smoking resulted in an estimated annual average of 259,494 deaths among men and 178,408 deaths among women in the United States (Table). Among adults, 158,529 (39.8%) of these deaths were attributed to cancer, 137,979 (34.7%) to cardiovascular diseases, and 101,454 (25.5%) to respiratory diseases. The three leading specific causes of smoking-attributable death were lung cancer (123,836), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)† (90,582), and ischemic heart disease (86,801). Smoking during pregnancy resulted in an estimated 910 infant deaths annually during 1997–2001. An estimated 38,112 lung cancer and heart disease deaths annually were attributable to exposure to secondhand smoke. The average annual SAM estimates also included 918 deaths from smoking-attributable fires.
During 1997–2001, on average, smoking accounted for an estimated 3.3 million YPLL for men and 2.2 million YPLL for women annually, excluding burn deaths and adult deaths from secondhand smoke. Estimates for average annual smoking-attributable productivity losses were approximately $61.9 billion for men and $30.5 billion for women during this period (Table).
Reported by: BS Armour, PhD, T Woollery, PhD, A Malarcher, PhD, TF Pechacek, PhD, C Husten, MD, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC.
If smoking related death’s were this bad then, I would say the question is now:
How much is lost,gone for good before it’s enough for us all!!!
Anyone care to make a comment?